TRAUMA INFORMED CARE
Trauma Informed Care and Practice (TICP) is an approach which recognises and acknowledges trauma and its prevalence, alongside awareness and sensitivity to its dynamics, in all aspects of service delivery. It is often a ground up approach as opposed from the head down, meaning that trauma often effects us in the body and in the primal centres of our brain i.e.: fight/flight or freeze survival instincts can be hyper vigilant and overactive and we need to use a more physical approach to re-wire or re-fire these through mindfulness, yoga, pilates, tai chi, art and theatre.
The Person Centred Approach was developed by psychologist, Carl Rogers. It focuses on the belief that we are all born with an innate ability for psychological growth if external circumstances allow us to do so. This actualising tendency which is present in every living organism, is the ability to grow, to develop and the desire to realise our full potential. It is this directional flow that we aim to release.
There is one directive for the therapist; to embody the attitudinal quality of genuineness and to experience empathic understanding from the client’s internal frame of reference and to experience unconditional positive regard towards the client. When the client perceives the therapist’s empathic understanding and unconditional positive regard, the actualizing tendency of the client is promoted. By clients being prized and valued, they can learn to accept who they are and reconnect with their true selves.
Mindfulness is bringing non-judgmental consciousness to the present experience. Through practicing to direct one's attention to the breathe, we are able to stay in the present moment and from here observe our thoughts, feelings and emotions from a distance instead of being in them and controlled by them. Rather than avoiding uncomfortable feelings and thoughts, mindfulness brings acceptance to the sensations with a sense of curiosity and compassion. We become the observer of our other selves. From this place of openness and calm, we can bring consciousness to our thoughts and actions.
One can be fully present in the here and now, more connected to self, others, and the external world.
Mental health experts claim that mindfulness practice results in decreased anxiety and depression, less moodiness and anger, and greater emotional stability (Reachout.com, 2013). Additionally, mindfulness appears to thicken the areas of the brain in charge of decision-making, emotional flexibility and empathy (UCLA Mindful Awareness Research Center [MARC], n.d.).
SOLUTION FOCUSED THERAPY
As the name suggests, Solution Focused Therapy is future-focused, goal-directed, and focuses on solutions, rather than on the problems that brought clients to seek therapy.
SFT believes that all people have expertise about their own lives, knowledge about what’s important, value and what they want for themselves They have strengths, skills and resilience often in the face of challenging circumstances. All clients have motivation for something even if it is not readily apparent or identified. It’s my role to discover what it is you want from the session as well as the most useful way of respectful collaboration in pursuit of what you want. SFT holds no theory about how change takes place but instead holds a strong belief that change is constant and inevitable in people’s lives. With SFT, practitioners lead from behind.
INTERNAL FAMILY SYSTEMS THERAPY
Internal Family Systems Therapy (IFS) recognizes that our psyches are made up of different parts, sometimes called subpersonalities. You can think of them as little people inside us. Each has its own perspective, feelings, memories, goals, and motivation. Every part has a positive intent for you, no matter how problematic it might be.
With IFS, we welcome all our parts with curiosity and compassion. We seek to understand them and appreciate their efforts to help us. But we don’t lose sight of the ways they may be causing us problems. We develop a relationship of caring and trust with each part, and then take the steps to release it from its burdens so it can function in a healthy way.
In the IFS system, there are two primary types of parts—protectors and exiles. The protectors are the parts you usually encounter first in exploring yourself. Their job is to handle the world and protect against the pain of the exiles. Exiles are young child parts that hold pain from the past. Also, IFS recognizes that each of us has a spiritual center, a true Self. This Self is naturally compassionate and curious about people, and especially about our own parts. The Self wants to connect with each part and get to know and understand it. IFS helps coach the Self in how to relate to these different parts.
ACCEPTANCE AND COMMITMENT THERAPY
Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is an action-oriented approach to psychotherapy that stems from traditional behavior therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. Clients learn to stop avoiding, denying, and struggling with their inner emotions and, instead, accept that these deeper feelings are appropriate responses to certain situations that should not prevent them from moving forward in their lives. With this understanding, clients begin to accept their issues and hardships and commit to making necessary changes in their behavior, regardless of what is going on in their lives, and how they feel about it.